Aegle marmelos
Botanical Name:
Aegle marmelos

Bilva consists of dried stem bark &/or dried root of Aegle marmelos Corr, Family Rutaceae

Common Name(s) in English & Indian Languages
Sanskrit: Sriphal
Assamese: Bael, Vael
Bengali: Bela, Bilva
English: Bael Root, Bengal Quince
Guajarati: Bilivaphal, Bill, Bilum
Hindi: Bel, Bela, Sriphal
Kannada: Bilva
Malayalam: Koovalam
Marathi: Baela, Bel
Oriya: Bela
Punjabi: Bil
Tamil: Vilvam
Telugu: Maredu
Urdu: Bel

Botanical description:
TThe Bilva tree is slow-growing of medium size, up to 40 or 50 ft (12-15 m) tall with shot trunk, thick, soft, flaking bark and spreading sometimes spiny branches the lower ones drooping. Young suckers bear many stiff straight spines. A clear gummy sap, resembling gum arabic exudes from wounded branches and hangs down in long strands, becoming gradually solid. The deciduous, alternate leaves, borne singly or in 2'S or 3'S, are composed of 3 to 5 oval, pointed, shallowly toothed leaflets, 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long, ¾ to 2 in (2-5 cm) wide, the terminal one with a long petiole. New foliage is glossy and pinkish-maroon .Mature leaves emit a disagreeable odor when bruised. Fragrant flowers, in clusters of 4 to 7 along the young branchlets, have 4 recurved, fleshy petals, green outside, yellowish inside and 50 or more greenish yellow stamens. The fruit round, pyriform, oval or oblong, 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) in diameter may have a thin, hard, woody shell or a more or less soft rind, gray-green until the fruit is fully ripe when it turns yellowish. It is dotted with aromatic minute oil glands. Inside there is a hard central core and 8 to 20 faintly defined triangular segments. With thin dark-orange walls filled with aromatic pale-orange, pasty, sweet, resinous, more or less astringent, pulp. Embedded in the pulp are 10 to 15 seeds. Flattened-oblong, about 3/8 in (1 cm) long, bearing woolly hairs and each enclosed in a sac of adhesive, transparent mucilage that solidifies
on drying.

Parts used:
Dried stem bark, dried roots

Major chemical constituents:
Auraptene, Coumarins, Glycosides

Therapeutic uses:
• Dysentery (Pravahika)
• Digestive impairment (Agnimandya)
• Disorders of small intestine (Grahaniroga)

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