Exudate of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhand.
Botanical Name:
Exudate of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhand.

Guggulu consists of gum resin exudate of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhand, (Synonym Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks Commiphora mukul Engl.), Family Burseraceae

Common Name(s) in English & Indian Languages
Sanskrit: Pura, Mahisaksa, Kausika, Palankasa
Assamese: Guggul
Bengali: Guggula
English: Gum-gugul, Indian Bdellium
Guajarati: Gugal, Guggal, Gugar
Hindi: Guggul
Kannada: Kanthagana, Guggala, Mahishaksha guggulu, Guggulugida, Guggulu, Guggal
Kashmiri: Guggul Dhoop, Kanth Gan
Malayalam: Gulgulu, Guggulu
Marathi: Guggul, Mahishaksh
Oriya: Guggulu
Punjabi: Guggal
Tamil: Mahisaksi Guggalu
Telugu: Makishakshi guggulu, Guggipannu
Urdu: Muqil (Shihappu)

Botanical description:
Commiphora mukul is a small perennial tree or shrub upto 1.2-1.8 m high, with rounded tops, thick trunks, dark brown bark and large, sharply pointed thorns on the stem. Branches numerous, irregular or rough, stunted and spiny. Leaves unequal, ternate, alternate. Flowers small, dioecious, yellow-red fascicled, polygamous, arranged in terminal panicles. Calyx tubular, teeth usually four, valvate petals usually found inserted on the edge of the disk; stamens 8–10 on disk alternately long and short fi laments, dialated below. Fruits are oval-lanceolate drupes, about 0.3 cm long. When stems are damaged or incised, oleo-gum resins exude from the schizogenous resin ducts The gum exudate occurs in rounded or irregular tears or lumps of agglutinated tears of variable sizes;brownish-yellow to reddish-brown or almost black. The surface is mostly covered with a greyish or yellowish powder; the internal surface is yellowish or reddish-brown, sometimes marked with white spots or lines; brittle; fracture, waxy, granular, conchoidal and yields thin translucent fragments

Parts used:
Gum resin exudate

Major chemical constituents:
Resins, essential oil and water-soluble gum

Therapeutic uses:
• Rheumatism (Amavata)
• Skin diseases (Kustha)
• Urinary disorders (Prameha)
• Diseases due to Vata dosha / Neurological disorders (Vatavyadi)
• Cyst (Granthi)
• Oedema (Sopha)
• Cervical lymphadenitis (Gandamala)
• Obesity (Medoroga)
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